Saturday, August 2, 2008

Disaster Recovery World War II Style

The Huntington Library Collection of
Maryland State Archives
Security Microfilm


World War II brought home the real threat of German attacks on the East Coast of the United States, just as the attack on December 7, 1941 at Pearl Harbor brought panic to the West Coast and the deportation inland of the Japanese American population. Shipping all along the East Coast was disrupted by German U Boats, and public officials in Maryland became concerned about the loss of vital historical records at the State Capital, Annapolis. At a meeting in the Governor's office at the State House on December 11, 1941, plans were made to move the records inland to Western Maryland. The fears of loss were not unfounded. U Boats were sighted in the Bay as well as at its mouth. When Harvard University, several decades later, divested itself of duplicate U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey maps of the Chesapeake Bay, offering them to the Maryland State Archives, they turned out to be Charts stamped with swastikas intended for the use of U Boat captains.

Dr. Morris Radoff, only three years into his 36 year term as Archivist, was charged with organizing the move. For Annapolis this would not be the first time. St. George Peale, the brother of the noted colonial artist, was given the same assignment in 1777 when the British fleet came up the Bay. Peale actually moved the records only to have his expense account disputed in classic bureaucratic fashion, and Dr. Radoff had second thoughts when he found how much it would cost to move the original records in 1942. Instead, he suggested security microfilm, to which the Governor and the Hall of Records Commission agreed.

Interestingly enough, the concern was greatest, not about current records, but about the oldest historical records of the State, possibly because only six years before the State had built a state of the art archives building christened The Maryland Hall of Records, and had begun moving all the historical records of the State there from local courthouses where the threat of fire and loss was endemic. By 1946, 256 reels of what Dr. Radoff referred to as the most important holdings of the Maryland Hall of Records (now known as the Maryland State Archives) were completed. The War was over, but the needs of scholars and the concern about future disasters remained. The Hall of Records Commission, chaired by the Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, on the advice of Dr. Radoff, determined that it would be wise to send copies of the microfilm to California (the Huntington Library), Utah (the Morman Church), and London (The British Library). The Hall of Records kept one copy in Annapolis, and the Library of Congress retained the master negative in Washington. With a significant subsidy from the Library of Congress, headed by Dr. Radoff's friend Luther Evans, the transfer to the Huntington Library and the other repositories was under way by December, 1946, with the Huntington gratefully acknowledging receipt the following January.

In the intervening years, the microfilm copies at Annapolis were largely destroyed by heavy use in destructive microfilm readers. They did serve to help preserve the originals from wear and tear, but their value as a disaster recovery resource was lost. The Library of Congress and the British Library appear to have lost sight of their copies. Undoubtedly the Mormans still have theirs, but they charge a considerable fee for duplicates, as they should, having been one of the earliest organizations to take seriously the business of permanently preserving archival microfilm at their mountain vaults outside Salt Lake City. Fortunately for the Maryland State Archives, the Huntington Library kept their copies safe and uncirculated. When I approached them about permitting us to borrow and scan the film for public use on the web, and as an archival electronic copy for our own disaster recovery program, they agreed.

Beginning December 19, 2008, the original 256 reels of approximately 380,000 images of the Archives of Maryland as it existed in December, 1946, and one reel of film of the transfer correspondence with the Huntington Library, will be on line from the permanent electronic archives vaults of the Maryland State Archives. They represent a new approach to providing archival records on line. They are in ebooks that offer the opportunity for the public to transcribe and annotate the records. They are also a part of larger project to engage incarcerated individuals in the indexing of historical records. Providing index access to historical records is by far the most expensive and labor intensive aspect of archival work for which most archives, including the Maryland State Archives, have virtually no resources.

Access to the Huntington Collection of Maryland State Archives Security Microfilm originates with the Maryland State Archives on-line Guide to Government Records, where records are inventoried as much as possible to the Series Unit level and associated with the agency that created them. In this respect the Maryland State Archives departs from the Record Group concept of the National Archives. We find that it is better management of records to begin with analysis of content in relationship to the purpose for which the records were created in the first place (a 'series') and associate the boxes, folders, cases, project files, etc. as series units with those series, linking them to any changes in the office of origin over time. In this case, TE 1, we have created an artificial electronic archival series related to the film we have borrowed from the Huntington Library and returned. It will be the permanent home of the images from this film from which the ebooks on line are derived.

Apart from reconstructing permanently Dr. Radoff's purpose of creating a slice in time of the most important historical records in his care by 1946, my goal was to demonstrate that with limited resources and a carefully thought out management plan, large quantities of authoritative images of permanent records could be made available for research and transcription/editing, and to provide a model that could be scaled for any size institution at modest to moderate cost. A manual on what to do and how to do it that includes modestly priced software and hardware recommendations will be available after December 19, 2008. Anyone interested should write me at

The Maryland State Archives Guide to Government Records provides the starting point for the use of this collection, linking the images of the volumes to the surviving originals and to any subsequent efforts to improve the quality of the images, as well as any indexing.

While Dr. Radoff and Governor O'Conor in making the gift of the microfilm to the Huntington Library characterized the collection as containing all the colonial records of Maryland State Government, they were mistaken. Notably missing from the film are the most basic land records of the State, the warrants, the patents, and the certificates of survey, that relate to original land grants. While these records were in the same building as the the records that were filmed by 1946, Dr. Radoff had no jurisdiction over them and would not until the 1960s. These records will be accessible electronically through the Guide to Government Records beginning December 19, 2008.

Over the years there have also been significant discoveries of colonial era Maryland public records in government offices and other repositories, such as the purloined Peter Force Collection of the Library of Congress, and the Scharf papers now at the Maryland State Archives. In time I hope these too will be added to our electronic archives for the benefit of future generations, as part of our continuing efforts to provide a modern disaster recovery plan that we hope will never again be overlooked or lost.

Edward C. Papenfuse
State Archivist and Commissioner of Land Patents
August 4, 2008

It Should Be About the Children:Defining & Practicing Civic Authority in the United States

image courtesy of Charles Schwartz, originally in the Jackie Napoleon Wilson Collection

What follows are four quotes from the Era of the American Revolution, three relatively brief, and one extensive, that participants in a teachers' workshop I gave were asked to identify as to author and source. The quotes were intended to stimulate discussion during a presentation about using the Maryland State Archives Documents for the Classroom. All the quotes have a local (Maryland) connection to major themes in teaching American History. The prize for identifying the author and source of the quotes was a useful book of essays and documents relating to the Declaration of Independence published by the University of Virginia Library as a tribute to a major donor, Albert H. Small whose collection the book features.

The teachers were asked to identify by whom, when and where they were written, explaining their context and their relevance to both Maryland's and the Nation's past, present, and future.

They were told that clues to the answers would be found in the lecture and in the document packet Writing It All Down on the Maryland State Archives web site, which they had been assigned in advance of the workshop.

The quotes provoked a lively discussion, not only with regard to sources and meaning, but also with respect to how important it is to preserve and make accessible local documents for the teaching of American History and Civic Responsibility.

The initial version of this blog entry was intended for the exclusive use of the teachers as a means of engaging them on line for the purposes of the workshop, but on reflection, I thought that a wider audience might be interested in their origins and reflecting on their significance.


1. "He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power."

2. "He has waged cruel war against human nature itself,violating it's most sacred rights of life & liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery, in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transporation thither. This piratical warfare, the approbation of infidel powers, is the warfare of the CHRISTIAN king of Great Britain. Determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or restrain this excrable commerce. And this assemblage of horrors want no fact of distinguished dye he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them by murdering the people on whom he also obtruded them: thus paying off former crimes committed against the LIBERTIES of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit agains the LIVES of another."

3. "the doctrine of non-resistence against arbitrary power and oppression is absurd, slavish, and destructive of the good and happiness of mankind." quoted by Saul Cornell in A Well Regulated Militia," (2006), p. 131.

4) "Vox Africanorum"

Charge to the teachers' workshop: determine when the following was published and why. Is it significant? Should it be used in teaching about American History with Maryland sources? Why?

To a people whose characteristic virtues are justice and fortitude, in the exercise of which they have become the wonder and astonishment of the universe,
we, the black inhabitants of these United States, humbly submit the following address.

When Great-Britain essayed to make her first unjust and wicked attempts to forge chains to enslave America, the noble spirit of liberty and freedom uttered her voice.

America, with the meekness of a lamb, remonstrated against the wickedness of the attempt; but Britain, lost to every sentiment of justice and virtue, and sunk in every vice, obstinately persisted in the rash attempt.

America then, nobly animated with the love of liberty, assuming the fortitude of a lion, stepped forth, and proclaimed, "We Will be Free."

The world beheld with admiration mingled with applause, and heaven smiled approbation.

Determined in her resolutions, America has borne the storms and complicated pressures of an eight years war, purchased at the price of her blood and treasure,and even at the risque of her existence, she has at length obtained her liberty, the darling object of her soul; universal joy has diffused itself through all her borders; acclamations of gratitude on this occasion, from the lips of her every free-born son have ascended to the throne on high; the glorious deeds of America are recorded in the court of heaven.

When an address is made to men, who have been born free-- to Americans, who have been alarmed, and nobly roused into virtuous activity at the first dawnings of slavery-- to men whose hearts are warm --whose minds are expanded with the recent acquisition of their own liberty and freedom-- to men whose actions and whose sufferings have been unparalleled in the annals of mankind during a conduct of many years, to retain, and to transmit,without diminution, the rights of humanity and blessings of liberty to their posterity---

When an address I say, is made to such men, by fellow creatures groaning under the chains of slavery and oppression, can we doubt of their becoming he friends and advocates of the enslaved and oppressed?

Can we doubt of touching their feelings and exciting their attention?

-- No --

to doubt would be wickedness in the abstract -- it would be sinning against the solemn declarations of a brave and virtuous people.

We have lately beheld, with anxious concern, your infant struggles in the glorious cause of liberty--We attend to your solemn declaration of the rights of mankind-- to your appeals, for the rectitude of your principles, to the Almighty, who regards men of every condition[?]and admits them to a participation of his benefices

--We admired your wisdom, justice, piety, and fortitude.
To that wisdom, justice, piety, and fortitude, which has led you to freedom and true greatness, we now appeal.

Freedom is the object of our humble address.

Our abject state of slavery, a state of all others the most degrading to human nature, is known to every American; We shall not, therefore, descend to the disagreeable task of wounding the feelings of any by a description.

In the language of your humble addresses to the inexhorable throne of Britain, permit us humbly to address you.

Liberty is our claim.

Reverence for our Great Creator, principles of humanity, and the dictates of common sense, all convince us that we have an indubitable right to liberty. Has not the wisdom of America solemnly declared it?

Attend to your own declarations--

"These truths are self-evident---all men are created equal; they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

We shall offer no arguments--nay, it would be insulting to the understanding of America at this enlightened period, to suppose they stood in need of arguments to prove our right to liberty. It would be to suppose she has already forgot those exalted principles she has so lately asserted with her blood.

Though our bodies differ in colour from yours; yet our souls are similar in a desire for freedom. Dispairty in colour, we conceive, can never constitute a disparity in rights. Reason is shocked at the absurdity. Humanity revolts at the idea!

Let America cease to exult --she has yet obtained but partial freedom. Thousands are yet groaning under their chains; slavery and oppression are not yet banished this land; the appellation of master and slave, an appellation of all others the most depressing to humanity, have still an existence.

We are slaves! To whom?
Is it to abandoned Britons?
Permit us to refer you to facts;
let them make the reply. A people who have fought--
who have bled-- who have purchased their own freedom by a sacrifice of their choicest heroes -- will never continue the advocacy for slavery.

Pride, insolence, interest, avarice, and maxims of false policy, have marked the conduct of Britain -- but shall pride, insolence, considerations of interest, avarice or maxims of false policy, lead America to a conduct inconsistent with ther principles?

Forbid it Justice--forbid it wisdom-- forbid it sound policy?---
Every principle which has led America to freedom and greatness forbid it.
Has the laws of Nature doomed us to this abject state --- shut out as it were, from the benign influences of religion, knowledge, arts and science --excluded from every refinement which renders human nature happy!

Why then are we held in slavery? Is it by any municipal law?
If so, YE fathers of your country; friends of liberty and of mankind,
behold our chains!

Lend an ear to the voice of oppression-- commiserate the affections of a helpless and abused part of the human species.

To you we look for justice --deny it not--it is our right.


Post Script:

If you would like to listen to the Vox Africanorum text, download the wma file (for Windows users only)

You might also like to read the reflections of "Common Sense," published on May 1, 1783, when approval of the Treaty of Paris and the official end of the Revolution appeared to be close at hand.